21.2 percent is the highest efficiency reported to date for industry typical silicon solar cells using screen-printed metal contacts. The measurements were confirmed by the independent institute Fraunhofer ISE CalLab. A combination of different technologies enabled this great result on an industrial PERC solar cell.
As opposed to conventional solar cells, PERC cells have a passivated rear-side, which increases the amount of energy captured from the cell. ISFH's cell design incorporates a narrow front-side grid design using a dual printing process and an advanced five busbar design. This special layout enables the reduction of finger line widths to 46 μm, which decreases shadowing losses and serial resistance. The narrower finger lines were printed with an industry-leading front-side silver metallization paste of Heraeus that processes a high fill factor and low series resistance. The busbars were printed using Heraeus' newest low activity paste. This paste does not fire through the passivation layer, which results in an additional boost in Voc. (Source: Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin, www.isfh.de; Heraeus, www.heraeus.com
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Neither company has admitted any liability with respect to these lawsuits. Other terms of the settlement were divulged and are confidential. (Source: DuPont, 29 Oct., 2013) Contact: DuPont Photovoltaic, http://photovoltaics.dupont.com; Heraeus, http://www.wc-heraeus.com
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The ground-breaking research was carried out last month at the ISFH facilities in Emmerthal, Germany and utilized ISFH's PERC solar cells, DEK Solar's Eclipse metallization platform as well as its Dual Print screens and stencils, and optimized front-side silver metallization pastes from Heraeus. This combination of robust manufacturing techniques, high performance materials and exceptionally accurate metallization systems has delivered on the industry's ultimate goal: High efficiency and low cost.
DEK provides next-generation technologies and process support to solar cell manufacturers. DEK's solutions include: modular metallization platforms; precision screens and materials applications used in back side field coating; current-collector pattern and termination deposition for photovoltaic substrate production. (Source: DEK Solar, Oct., 2013) Contact: DEK Solar, (480) 584-9502 , www.deksolar.com, www.dek.com; Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin, www.isfh.de; Heraeus, http://www.wc-heraeus.com
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"With our recent purchase of the Ferro Corporation's Solar Paste Business, our combined R&D efforts have made significant reductions in Ag usage in back-side tabbing pastes while maintaining excellent performance," said Heraeus Photovoltaics Business Unit VP of Technology Dr. Weiming Zhang.
"This reduction in silver usage, combined with excellent performance will assist customers in reducing their cells' cost per watt. Depending on the customer's application, we believe we can reduce the silver content further." (Source: Heraeus, July 9, 2013) Contact: Heraeus, http://www.wc-heraeus.com
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According to Andy London, Global Manager of Heraeus Photovoltaics, "Heraeus develops front-side and back-side pastes that lower the silver content per cell. Front-side silver paste has become an increasing cost in the production of crystalline solar cells as silver bullion prices have escalated to historic highs. Heraeus addresses the need to reduce that cost by producing silver pastes that allow for up to 40% reduction in silver usage."
London says, "Heraeus SOL9600, our current new product for the front-side, prints finer lines thus reducing silver usage and increase efficiency due to less shading. Heraeus SOL205S, our current product for the back-side, is produced using 52% silver content, further reducing silver usage on the cell. Heraeus SOL315, our current product for passivated emitters has a silver content significantly less than standard pastes." London also says
"Silver bullion prices have eased over the last nine months, as increased silver bullion production has resulted in an oversupply. Whether this is a permanent situation or not, Heraeus will continue in the direction of reducing the silver usage in cells." (Source: Heraeus, PR, July 10, 2012) Contact: Heraeus Precious Metals North America Conshohocken LLC
Photovoltaics Business Unit,
David McMullen, Marketing and Business Development,
firstname.lastname@example.org, www.heraeus.com, www.pvsilverpaste.com
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SOL315 can be used for front-side and backside applications. When SOL315 is screen printed and fired onto passivated silicon wafers, it does not penetrate the passivation layer. SOL315 enables a significant reduction of charge carrier recombination on passivated c-Si wafer surfaces, where good adhesion is required but contact formation is undesired. SOL315 can be used as a floating busbar on the front-side of c-Si cells. As back-side soldering pads, SOL315 possesses high mechanical adhesion on dielectric layers, excellent soldering compatibility, easy printability and lower paste consumption go to.
(Source: PR, Heraeus, July 2, 2012) Contact:Heraeus Precious Metals GmbH Co. KG Photovoltaics Business Unit, Verena Klotz, Marketing, + 49 (6181) 35-3544, email@example.com, www.heraeus.com,
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Under this one-year agreement, Heraeus will dedicate R&D resources in its 3 technology centers located in West Conshohocken (USA), Hanau (Germany) and Singapore to develop state-of-the-art silver metallization pastes for Yingli's high efficiency N-type silicon solar cells, tagged PANDA.
(Source: Yingli Green Energy Holdings, April 24, 2012)
Contact: Helena Kimball, Marketing Communications, Yingli Green Energy Americas, (510) 847-3920, www.yinglisolar.com; Heraeus Precious Metals North America Conshohocken LLC, David P. McMullen, PV Business Unit, (610) 825-6050, firstname.lastname@example.org, www.heraeus.com
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Heraeus offers pastes that are specially formulated to be used for novel cell design technologies, such as the MWT-PERC-concept. There is a broad range of different pastes for the front-side and back-side metallization of conventional crystalline solar cells available. In 2011 Heraeus introduced a new series of pastes for low temperature processing. (Source: Heraeus, January 31, 2012)
Contact: Heraeus Precious Metals North America Conshohocken LLC, David P. McMullen, PV Business Unit, (610) 825-6050, email@example.com, www.heraeus.com; Fraunhofer ISE, Karin Schneider, +49 761 4588-5150, www.ise.fraunhofer.de
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